Succinic acid (butanedioic acid, ethane-1,2-dicarboxylic acid) is a dibasic limiting carboxylic acid. Colorless crystals, soluble in water and alcohol. Contained in small quantities in many plants, amber. Stimulates growth and increases the yield of plants, accelerates the development of corn. In industry, succinic acid is mainly obtained by hydrogenation of maleic anhydride. The melting point is 183 degrees. Above 235 °C cleaves H2O and passes into succinic anhydride. Succinic acid readily sublimates at 130-140 °C. Solubility in water (grams per 100 g of water): 6.8 (at 20 °C), 121 (at 100 °C). It also dissolves in ethyl alcohol: 9.9 (5 °C); in diethyl ether - 1,2 (at 15 °C). Insoluble acid in benzene, gasoline, chloroform. The dissociation constants are as follows: Ka1 = 7.4 * 10-5, Ka2 = 4.5 * 10-6.