Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. Formic acid is highly soluble in acetone, benzene, glycerin, toluene. It perfectly mixes with water, diethyl ether, ethanol. It is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and occurs naturally, most famously in the venom of bee and ant stings. The principal use of formic acid is as a preservative and antibacterial agent in livestock feed.
- Molar mass
- 46.025 g/mol
- CAS Number
- 1.22 g/cm3 at 25°C (77°F)
- ≥98% (ACS Reagent) puriss p.a.
- Colourless liquid
- Melting point/freezing point
- 8.2 - 8.4°C (46.8 - 47.1°F) - lit.
- Initial boiling point and boiling range
- 100 - 101°C (212 - 214°F) - lit.
- Flash point
- 49.5°C (121.1°F) - closed cup
- Vapour pressure
- 42.00 hPa (31.50 mmHg) at 20°C (68°F); 169.99 hPa (127.50 mmHg) at 50°C (122°F)
- Vapour density
- 1.59 - (Air = 1.0)
- Water solubility
- completely miscible
- 2.2 at 2.2 g/l at 20°C (68°F)
- Partition coefficient: n-octanol/water
- log Pow: - 0.54
- Upper/lower flammability or explosive limits
- Upper EL: 57%(V); Lower EL: 18%(V)