People know hydrochloric acid since ancient times. The first person to discover it was Jabir ibn Hayyan around 800 AD. Initially, it was produced by mixing rock salt and “green vitriol”, later from common salt and sulfuric acid. Nowadays, this compound is prepared synthetically by dissolving hydrogen chloride gas in water. This chemical is considered as a “workhorse”, because it has an incredibly broad variety of applications.
Physical and Chemical Properties
Hydrochloric acid is a strong mineral acid with the formula HCl(aq) and CAS № 7647-01-0. It is also known as muriatic acid, hydronium chloride, spirits of salt or chlorhydric acid. It is clear colorless to light yellow tint liquid with a sharp, pungent smell. The substance is nonflammable and fully miscible in water. The other physical and chemical properties of hydrochloric acid, such as melting and boiling points, pH, density, etc. usually depend on the concentration. The most widespread solutions have concentration grade up to 38%. The stronger solutions are chemically possible, but the evaporation rate will be so high in this case, it will require extra precautions. At our online store, you can buy hydrochloric acid 25%, besides, we offer for sale 36.5 – 38% solution at compatible prices and with worldwide delivery.
Hydrochloric acid has multiple uses. It is a popular laboratory reagent. Besides, it plays an important role in different industrial processes:
- Pickling of steel: in order to remove rust and iron oxide scale.
- Manufacture of household cleaners, such as tile cleaners, toilet bowl cleaners, etc.
- Pool sanitation: to maintain a proper pH level.
- Food production: serves as acidifier in fabrication of canned goods, sauces, juices, etc.
- Mixed with limestone, it creates calcium chloride that is used to de-ice road and as a firming agent and stabilizer in food industry.
Safety Information and Storage
Hydrochloric acid is extremely dangerous. If on skin, it may cause severe chemical burns. Splashed in eyes, it leads to serious damage, even blindness. The high concentration solution forms acidic mists that is harmful to respiratory organs. That is why it is important to wear personal protective equipment and clothing while handling the substance.
The acid should be kept in sealed PVC container, in well-ventilated, dry location, away from metals and bases.